74 BCE). Antipater (ca. The prophet had been publicly criticizing him for divorcing his first wife, the daughter of the Nabatean king, Aretas IV, in order to marry Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip I3 (Mt 14:1-5; Josephus Antiquities 18.5.1). Antipater's life, from the day of his mother's return to favor and of his own recall to the palace of Jerusalem, was one continuous endeavor to supplant in the favor of his father all the other members of the Herodian family, and finally, when this object was well-nigh achieved, to gain possession, through parricide, of the throne of Judea. The story starts with Antipater, the father of Herod. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998, p.109. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater I, and father of * Herod. More information about Herod the Great can be found in Matthew 2:1-22 and Luke 1:5. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 5:2. http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-17.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_(son_of_Herod_the_Great)&oldid=992391830, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 01:07. Herod quickly set about ridding Galilee of what his court historian calls "robbers," although they may also have been people resisting Roman rule. At that time Jerusalem was occupied by Parthian troops, fighting on behalf of the anti-Roman Jews. How During Antipater's Abode at Rome, Herod Brought Alexander and ..... CHAPTER 4. He died by poison. Herod’s Father, Antipater laid the foundations for his Son’s future. For the country, see, Roman procurator and appointments of sons, Kokkinos, Nikos. In the 1881 Library of Universal Knowledge, vol, #1 of 15, p. 531, it states in part: “ ANTIPATER: Of the many persons who bore this name in antiquity, the most celebrated was one of the generals and confidential friends of king Philip of Macedon. Early Church Fathers often portrayed Herod polemically, and as such, their accounts of his familial origin reflected poetic license in place of historical accuracy. Herod the Great After the death of his father Antipater, Herod the Great (still governor of Galilee) established a close relationship with Mark Antonyâone of the renowned ringleaders of Julius Caesarâs assassination. Hyrcanus threatened that any Idumaean who wished to maintain their land would need to be circumcised and enter into the traditions of the Jews. Josephus presents two opposing reasons, one which would help secure Hyrcanus against the rising threat of Herod, and the other being his desire to quickly dispose of Hyrcanus and take power himself. ; executed 4 B.C. Antípatros; c. 46 â 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. For his "demonstrations of valor" Caesar elevated Antipater to Roman citizenship, freed him from taxes, and showered him with honors and declarations of friendship. Antipater's schemes came to nothing, however, for one of the last acts of Herod's life was an order to execute Antipater, who had instigated the murder of his half brothers and conspired to poison his father. , when Roman Emperor Julius Caesar (100â44 B.C.E. )  Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to fear that King Aristobulus would not retain him in this position. , But hearing these words, Herod, King of the Jews within the two years in length between, Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVII, Chapter 1:2; see. Antipater was from Edom (Idumaea), the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. Herod the Great's Story . Antipater laid the foundation for Herod's ascension to the throne of Judea partly through his activities in the court of the Hasmoneans, the heirs of the Maccabees, who were the hereditary leaders of the Jews, and partly by currying favor with the Romans, who were growing more involved and dominant over the region at this time. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself serviceable to the Jewish rulers, through his connections with his former congeners, of Arabia Petræa. First was his niece Mariamne III, daughter of Aristobulus IV.  After Hyrcanus stepped down, Antipater persuaded him to contend against his brother for his rightful position, and even convinced the unsuspecting and reluctant Hyrcanus that his younger brother intended to kill him.  Cassius demanded seven hundred talents out of Judea, so Antipater split the cost between his two sons. Herod the Great's Story . Soon after Hyrcanus succeeded his widowed mother as ruler and took the office of the high priest, he was immediately attacked by his brother and surrendered. He was born in Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea in 73 BC to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, the daughter of an Arab sheik. Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome. How During Antipater's Abode At Rome, Herod Brought Alexander And Aristobulus Before Caesar And Accused Them. Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. Herod's grandfather and father held prominent political offices in Judea and established close relations with the Romans, the unquestioned world power during that time. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the governors of Jerusalem and Galilee, respectively. was appointed procurator of Judea. Neither of these genealogies are accepted by scholars. As such, in a polemic against Herod to discredit him in the eyes of the Romans as unfit to become king of the Jews, Antigonus the Hasmonean is quoted by Josephus as referring to Herod as "no more than a private man, and an Idumean, i.e. While Caesar was besieged in Alexandria, Antipater rescued him with three thousand men and the aid of numerous nearby friends. , Hyrcanus proved ineffective as either an administrator, or more importantly, as tax collector. Herod the Great, the son of Antipater, who supported Hyrcanus II against Aristobulus II with the aid first of the Nabataean Arabs and then of Rome. In fact, Antipater was a rival to the throne. Antipater, Herod’s eldest son, whom he had executed for conspiring to kill him, ruled with his father during the final few years of Herod’s reign. , Although Antipater saved Malichus' life a second time from a different ruler, Malichus continued to despise Antipater and seek his murder. ANTIPATER (abridged form, Antipas): Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. Hyrcanus agreed to retire from public life. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. "The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity." One aristocrat tasked with collecting tribute was Malichus, who disdained Antipater and enraged Cassius by not collecting with haste. Antipater's work as power-broker between the Hasmoneans, the Arabians, and the Romans inaugurated dramatic dynamics and steep changes in the history of the Jewish nation. Antipater was killed by his father five days before Herod's own death according to Josephus. Antipater was found guilty by Varus; however, due to Antipater's high rank, it was necessary for Caesar Augustus to approve of the recommended sentence of death. After the death of Alexander Janeueus his wife Queen Alexandra Salome ruled for a â¦ Aristobulus impatiently provoked a political offense that brought Pompey to appoint Hyrcanus the ethnarch of Judea. Some time later, we read of the infamous event.  He arranged for Hyrcanus to come under the protection of the Arabian King Aretas III in Petra. Antipater now intrigued to bring these his half-brothers under the suse picion of their father, and with such success that Herod altered his intentions in their behalf, recalled Doris to court, and sent Antipater to Rome, recommended to Augustus (Ant.  This appeal persuaded Caesar who then appointed Antipater the first Roman Procurator of Judea. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwesternâ¦. Schiffman, Lawrence H., "Judea Under Roman Rule", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipater_the_Idumaean&oldid=994440011, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Antipater, who seems to have succeeded his father as governor of Idumæa, had reason to â¦ Antipater in Jewish Legend. a half Jew"..  Their marriage helped bring about a close friendship between him and King Aretas, called by Josephus "Aretas the Arabian", to whom Cypros was related. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth who increased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan), at that time the capital of the rising Arab Nabataean kingdom. Personal details. Herod Antipas is arguably most famous for beheading John the Baptist. Herod was born in southern Palestine.  Josephus explains this rendering by critiquing its author: Nicolaus wrote to please Herod and would do so at the cost of truthfulness.  He established order by tempering civil disturbances in Judea and threatening to become a "severe master instead of a gentle governor" should the people grow seditious and unruly.  Josephus writes that he was a man of great authority among the Idumeans, both wealthy and born into a dignified family. Antipater had wealth and power but he wanted more. According to Africanus and Epiphanius, he was the son of Herod (I) of Ascalon. The two men had such a relationship that Antipater entrusted his children to his friend when he went to war with the Hasmonean Aristobulus II. Known as Antipas, was granted the right to rule Galilee and Perea was his niece Mariamne,. Preserved by Julius Africanus with a history of unfailing loyalty to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome of Judah the... Above bible study Herod the Great columbia, SC: University of South Press. His activities eventually resulted in complaints raised with the Sanhedrin Africanus, Antipater laid the foundations his. 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